Introduction The demographic and socioeconomic makeup of large industrial(izing) centers in Europe were rapidly changing during late 19th, early 20th C. Population growth and rural-to-urban migration led to rising levels of crime, poverty, and epidemics. In Madrid, measures to control these issues were largely and consistently inefficient, partly due to the general mistrust in the… Read More

On the surface, and according to mainstream scholarship (the little that exists) on 20th century musical films in Spain, folkloricas were nothing but fascist propaganda, based on and endlessly propagating a range of cliched narratives, performances, and myths about Spanishness, femininity, honor, drama, and comedy. No beef with this reading—on the surface, they do appear… Read More